What’s wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales? A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Specifically, girls’ names were more unique than boys’ names (β = -0.22, t = –5.72, p < 0.001), and on average, longer names were more likely to include high-frequency (“less unique”) characters (β = 0.19, t = 4.67, p < 0.001). While need for uniqueness is not the same thing as prestige (people signalling their wealth through conspicuous consumption, which as we know can involve some pretty boring-looking but expensive objects), a higher price means that fewer people will be able to buy it, which means that the need-for-uniqueness folks (I’ll just call them n-f-u’s) will prefer it to lower-priced alternatives. Front. Both gender and name length had a significant main effect. J. Pers. In Study 1, we examined the change of Chinese NFU by investigating the reported NFU across different generations. This revealed complexity may be partly due to the persistence and variation of subsistence style (e.g., Talhelm et al., 2014). Conventional assumption holds that Chinese people, as an exemplar of collectivists, possess a lower NFU than Westerners. Request Permissions. This finding enriches our understanding of societal change’s psychological impact of societal change in China. Unusual given names have been linked to uniqueness seeking at the cultural level (Twenge et al., 2010) and to the NFU at the individual level (Snyder and Fromkin, 1980, p. 129–143; Zweigenhaft, 1981). “Person-job fit: a conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique,” in International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. Definition and high quality example sentences with “uniqueness” in context from reliable sources - Ludwig is the linguistic search engine that helps you to write better in English Examining this issue will enrich our understanding of Chinese people’s psychological change. Burgeoning research in China has suggested that Chinese may express their uniqueness via creative or unpopular choices and special consumer behaviors (e.g., Tian et al., 2001; Tsai et al., 2013). Therefore, names are viewed not only as a product of culture but also as a reflection of human psychology. HC proposed and designed this project. Effects of experimentally aroused feelings of undistinctiveness upon valuation of scarce and novel experiences. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. In Study 2, we sampled the names of Chinese newborn babies over the last five decades and found that parents have been increasingly likely to use unique characters to name their children. In China, however, there are no such “established” names. Psychol. 47, 329–341. 86, 518–527. The higher these barriers to entry, the smaller the threat for existing players. doi: 10.2307/2657288, Ishii, K., Miyamoto, Y., Rule, N. O., and Toriyama, R. (2013). Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Understanding luxury consumption in China: consumer perceptions of best-known brands. doi: 10.1080/08961530.2013.827081, Twenge, J. M., Abebe, E. M., and Campbell, W. K. (2010). Science 344, 603–660. Dollinger (2003) found that greater need for uniqueness was associated with higher scores on the Creative Behavior Inventory. We propose that explaining (or providing reasons for) decisions shifts the focus from the choice options to the choice of reasons. Psychol. United we shop! Given that the level of the NFU has been rising in China, people may infer further that the importance of the NFU has been rising. Pers. (2004). 30, 16–28. Typically, a Chinese given name consists of either one or two characters based on the preference of the child’s parents or elderly family members. Asch, S. E. (1956). If younger generations report higher NFU, one possibility is that the NFU has been rising in China. 46, 930–941. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. People who feel very unique and different from others within their social group may increase their interaction within the group to maintain relevance and self-identification with the group (Brewer and Pickett, 1999). In the last 30 years, tattoo body art has become increasingly prominent the Northern American population with an estimated 20 million adults with tattoos. In examining the impacts of socio-economic change, researchers have relied on subjective self-reports or/and analysis of objective cultural products (Morling and Lamoreaux, 2008). The items include: (a) I prefer being different from other people; (b) Being distinctive is important to me; (c) I have a need for uniqueness; and (d) I intentionally do things to make myself different from those around me (α = 0.80). In Study 2, we examined names of babies born in successive years over the past five decades. need for a reference data set that is considered to be the authoritative source of such data and is 100% complete. Birth year was significantly correlated with both the NFU at the individual level (r = 0.15, N = 579, p < 0.001) and the average score of the NFU per year (r = 0.44, N = 50, p = 0.001). We used four items to measure the NFU on a 5-point scale (1 = not at all/never, 5 = very much/very often) (Lynn and Harris, 1997). J. Int. Purchase intention for luxury brands: a cross cultural comparison. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Why? What’s in a name? doi: 10.1080/08911762.2013.864372, Snyder, C. R., and Fromkin, H. L. (1977). Stud. Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960–2008. Specifically, we investigated whether the NFU has been increasing in China. J. Sociol. Based on existing theories such as modernization theory (Inglehart and Baker, 2000) and social change and human development theory (Greenfield, 2009), many factors could have contributed to the rise of the NFU, such as increasing wealth, urbanization and education, decreasing family size, and others. In this article, we focused on a possible change in Chinese people’s need for uniqueness (NFU), a psychological need that is typically high in the West but assumed to be relatively low in the East (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). Furthermore, to our knowledge, no prior research on baby names in China has ever been published. “Translation and content analysis of oral and written material,” in Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. In Study 2, we specifically examined the usage of unusual given names. Consumers’ need for uniqueness: scale development and validation. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Psychol. Sci. By studying the cultural product of baby names, Study 2 found that Chinese people have used increasingly unique names for their children over past 50 years, suggesting that the rising NFU among Chinese people is not due to age effects. 65, 19–51. World Bus. For example, we may write a story that reflects some of our original ideas. For example, vital records data set. This uniqueness is a trait that she attributes to her early success as a dominatrix. Markus, H. R., and Kitayama, S. (1991). Tsai, W. S., Yang, Q., and Liu, Y. Improving national cultural indices using a longitudinal meta-analysis of Hofstede’s dimensions. (1984). J. Int. Measuring culture outside the head: a meta-analysis of individualism–collectivism in cultural products. Psychol. J. Psychol. 11, 227–237. Select the purchase Received: 08 August 2017; Accepted: 03 April 2018;Published: 08 May 2018. Thus, in our analysis, we test whether the given name consists of unique or rare (i.e., infrequently encountered) characters. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12216, Takemura, K. (2014). Next, we regressed the birth year on name character frequency while controlling for gender and name length (i.e., the total number of characters in the given name). We’re going to dive into some excellent sample answers that you can use as a sort of template, as well as why interviewers ask this question, what makes a good and bad answer, and how to pen your own excellent position-snatching answer. Psychol. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Can something be very unique or somewhat unique? The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. M. H. Bond (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press), 479–498. Our current research designs also do not allow us to examine the antecedents of the rising NFU directly, but we can make some speculations. Psychol. 124, 190–203. doi: 10.1002/1097-4679(197604)32:2<258::AID-JCLP2270320211>3.0.CO;2-O, Sun, G., Chen, J., and Li, J. This finding, however, remains limited, as self-reports are subject to various methodology artifacts such as social desirability, response style, and reference group effect (Bachman and O’Malley, 1984; Paulhus, 1991; Heine et al., 2002). Although no direct examination of this issue has yet taken place, a number of studies do support this possibility, particularly in the domain of consumer behavior. 51, 1–5. 120, 555–583. doi: 10.1037/h0093718, Bachman, J. G., and O’Malley, P. M. (1984). Popular names are less common on frontiers. doi: 10.1086/321947. Soc. Both correlations supported a significant decrease in name character frequency since 1950 (see Figure 2). Young Chinese consumers’ Snob and Bandwagon Luxury consumption preferences. Dev. This research investigates the interaction effect of a very common task, explaining decisions, and an individual difference, need for uniqueness (NFU), on buyer decision-making. Consum. *Correspondence: Huajian Cai, caihj@psych.ac.cn Yiming Jing, jingym@psych.ac.cn, Front. (2002). Res. 26, 311–324. J. Sociol. For instance, a large body of research has demonstrated that people with a high NFU desire scarce, novel, customized or unpopular products and are more likely to be attracted by unusual marketing strategies as well as to shop in less popular outlets (for a review, see Lynn and Snyder, 2002). Methodologically, it is difficult to identify the exact causes of cultural and psychological change because the changes usually occur naturally over the course of time, making it almost impossible to use an experimental or longitudinal design. For example the “Need for Uniqueness”, a personality trait that represents the need to establish a separate identity by pursuing self-distinguishing behavior. Int. On the one hand, many collectivistic or traditional values have been declining, including obedience, loyalty, modesty, hierarchy within the family and so on (Yang, 1996; Xu and Hamamura, 2014; Zeng and Greenfield, 2015); on the other hand, some traditional values have been continuing, including family love, friendships, patriotism and so on (Yang, 1996; Xu and Hamamura, 2014; Zeng and Greenfield, 2015). It has become familiar to millions through a diverse publishing program that includes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, business books, dictionaries and reference books, and academic journals. Several limitations are notable. J. Soc. Overall, the mean score of the NFU was 3.06 (SD = 0.76). Consum. Regarding the change of collectivism, however, the picture is much more complex. Psychol. 83, 29–45. Following assessments of the scale’s latent structure, a series of validation studies examines the scale’s validity. “The psychological transformation of the Chinese people as a result of societal modernization,” in Handbook of Chinese Psychology, ed. Share with your hiring manager not only what makes you unique, but how you used that uniqueness in a positive, constructive way. Bus. For example, Triandis (1995) has identified 60 attributes that may be associated with an individualistic or collectivistic culture. Bus. Psychol. These studies showed that the relative usage of singular first-person pronouns (e.g., “I” and “my”; Hamamura and Xu, 2015) versus plural first-person pronouns (e.g., “we” and “our”) and the prevalence of words related to individualistic values (e.g., autonomy and freedom; Zeng and Greenfield, 2015) have been increasing over the past decades. Empirical, theoretical, and methodological articles spanning fields such as psychology, marketing, sociology, economics, and anthropology are featured in this interdisciplinary journal. (2014). Cogn. It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. Average name character frequency averaged for each of the six birth cohorts (Study 2). We fill this research gap in the current study. Psychol. These findings suggest that the NFU has been rising in China, a historically collectivistic-oriented society. J. Mark. Psychol. Birth year was significantly correlated with name character frequency at the individual level (r = -0.19, N = 598, p < 0.001) and the average name character frequency per year (r = -0.49, N = 60, p < 0.001). Am. It is the … For example, Marco has a high need for institutional power and is regarded as a person who is capable of bringing necessary changes to the organization … Sci. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.77.4.785, Kim, H. S., and Sherman, D. K. (2007). Therefore, we excluded these two names from the analysis, making the final sample consist of 598 names (male: 327, female: 271). Kelly Tepper Tian, William O. Bearden and Gary L. Hunter, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China. Overvaluation of own attributes: mere ownership or subjective frequency? doi: 10.1177/0956797617700622, Simmers, C. S., Parker, R. S., and Schaefer, A. D. (2014)). Bus. The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan. Second, our goal is to delineate the overall trend of the NFU over the past several decades, rather than short-term changes caused by any particular event. Outside advantage: can social rejection fuel creative thought? Soc. 12, 199–221. The effect of consumers’ need for uniqueness, status consumption and brand perceptions was tested in relation to purchase intentions. Moniker maladies when names sabotage success. In sum, a significant increase in need for uniqueness, as reflected in baby names, was evident.3. Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. In both studies, the researchers speculated that socio-cultural changes may have led to an increasing NFU among today’s Chinese. Linking social change and developmental change: shifting pathways of human development. Together, using both subjective and objective methodologies, our two studies yielded consistent results: the NFU, both as a cultural value and as a personality trait, is on the rise in China. 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